Prospective Evaluation of Blue Light Flexible Cystoscopy With Hexaminolevulinate in Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer
Yair Lotan1, Iftach Chaplin1, Hamed Ahmadi2, Xiaosong Meng1, Sidney Roberts2, Sanam Seyedian2, Aditya Bagrodia1, Vitaly Margulis1, Solomon Woldu1, Siamak Daneshmand2
1 Department of Urology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States.
2 Department of Urology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.
PMID: 32648957 DOI: 10.1111/bju.15166
Objectives: To evaluate the utility of blue light flexible cystoscopy (BLFC) for surveillance of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).
Methods: Prospective cohort of consecutive patients who underwent office BLFC for NMIBC. Clinical information was collected including cystoscopic findings and pathologic data.
Results: A total of 322 cases were performed on 190 patients. Mean age was 71 years and 83% were men. The highest stage prior to BLFC was Ta, CIS, T1, T2 in 45.3%, 18.4%, 30% and 2%, respectively. Prior to BLFC, 16.8%, 60.5%, 16.8% were low grade, high grade, and CIS, respectively. Intravesical BCG and intravesical chemotherapy were used in 54.2% and 18.4%, respectively. White light cystoscopy (WLC) and BLFC were both normal in 173 (53.7%) of cases. WLC was normal and BLFC was abnormal in 26 (8%) cases. Of these, 15 had office biopsy and cancer was detected in 13 (87%)(6 CIS, 4 HG Ta, 3 LG Ta). Both WLC and BLFC were positive in 83 (25.8%) cases and 33% had additional tumors found. Cancer was found in 27 (75%) of WLC+/BLFC+ who underwent office biopsy including 19 LGTa, 6 HG Ta and 2 CIS.
Conclusions: Incorporation of BLFC in clinical practice has potential advantages of finding cancer in cases with normal WLC. BLFC detected additional cancers in 33% of patients with positive WLC and BLFC which can improve surveillance and performance of office biopsy. Further research is needed to determine cost-effectiveness and impact on recurrence rates.
Keywords: blue light flexible cystoscopy; cancer detection; non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.
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